Statements of Faith

The members of International Aboriginal Ministries, affirm our faith that:

1. There is but one “Creator.” – We believe in one universal spirit, divine and important; of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness; maker of all things.  Although our Creator is called by many names by peoples of various creeds, faiths and spiritual traditions in truth, all Gods are but reflections of the one Great Mystery, our Creator.

2. God is everywhere. – We believe God, the Creator, dwells everywhere, within and without, above and below?.  As such, we are bound to respect all creation, for in that manner we do honor not only to our Creator, but also to ourselves.

3. God is the Universal Divine Source. – We believe that, although the specific cultural and spiritual traditions of each tribe arc unique, all focus on celebrating and honoring the Sacred Circle of Life.  Due to the universal focus of these traditions, we believe they all emanate from a single Divine source, the Creator, and as such transcend any and all artificial borders, boundaries, or institutions devised by man.

4. Ours is a Living Faith. – We acknowledge that believing in our statement of faith is but one part of our duty to our Creator and ourselves; and that our duty includes living our statement of faith, setting an example for others to follow, reaching out with our hearts and hands to lift our brothers and sisters into the sacred circle: ultimately leaving this world a better place for ourselves and our posterity.

From: Elder’s Meditation of the Day – October 16:

“Many religions have been brought to this land.  And the way my religion is.  They teach me.  And they taught me and told me to respect all religions.  And I still do that.”Horace Axtell. NEZ PERCE

“The Creator put on this Earth many different religions which represent different roads to walk to God. All religions are right and good if the path is the path to God. Should we be judging which road is better or worse than the other? When we accept each other’s way we can stand in a circle, hold hands and listen to each other as we pray to God. Let us be more accepting of the religions of others.”

“Great Spirit – God. Grandfather, Grandmother. Lord – let me know peace.”

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Bylaws of the Native Orthodox Church of America

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Native Americans and Shamans

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Mary Dann and Carrie Dann


The Dann Sisters, Mary Dann (1923–2005) and Carrie Dann (1932–2021), were Western Shoshone elders who were spiritual leaders, ranchers, and cultural, spiritual rights and land rights activists. They challenged the federal government over uses of their tribe’s traditional land, in a case that reached the United States Supreme Court as U.S. v. Dann.

In 1993 the Dann sisters received the Right Livelihood Award for “exemplary courage and perseverance in asserting the rights of indigenous people to their land.”[1] American Outrage (2008) was a documentary film that explored their leadership in the disputes with the federal government over use of the Western Shoshone territory.[2]


In 1863, two years into the American Civil War, the US made the peace Treaty of Ruby Valley with the Western Shoshone, which was to allow US citizens safe passage through their territory, protect Pony Express and other access, and permit mining for gold on their land and future construction of railroads. The US needed the gold to conduct the war against the Confederacy. It defined the Western Shoshone territory as what is now a large portion of Nevada and four other states, as well as the underlying mineral rights, and said the Shoshone would never have to cede their land. It promised payment of annuities in cash or goods equaling $5000 annually for 20 years, but paid only the first year.[3]

Over the ensuing decades, the US acquired much of the Western Shoshone land, largely by Congressional legislation. Most of the land is now held for resource management by federal agencies such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in the Department of Interior and the Department of Energy (DOE). The latter has used some of the land for nuclear testing, and has conducted more than 100 atmospheric tests, “more than anywhere else in the world.” DOE has detonated nearly 1000 bombs on this territory.[4]

The Western Shoshone filed suit decades ago to try to reclaim their land. In 1962 the now defunct Indian Claims Court (which expired in 1978) ruled the Shoshone had lost control of their land due to settler encroachment, and they were not entitled to any claim from the US government.[5] As the case proceeded, in 1979 the Indian Claims Commission awarded a $26 million land claim settlement to the Western Shoshone. Part of the case went to federal courts for litigation. The US Supreme Court ruled in 1985 that the Shoshone land claims were extinguished by this financial settlement. The Shoshone refused to take the money, which is earning interest. Eighty percent of the Shoshone who voted on the issue were against accepting the financial settlement; instead, they asked the US to respect the terms of the 1863 treaty. Some Shoshone have wanted the tribe to take the money, and to distribute and invest it for the welfare of the tribe.[5]

Since 1973, the Dann sisters conducted civil protest by ranching and refusing to pay grazing fees to BLM to run their cattle outside their ranch on what they consider Shoshone land.[5] They contended the US had taken the land illegally and not abided by the terms of its treaty.

In 1982, some tribal members organized the Western Shoshone National Council as a governmental group; they elected Raymond Yowell as chief. It is an alternative to what they call the Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) governments of the Duckwater Indian Reservation and Yomba Indian Reservations, which are federally recognized tribes with elected governments. Yowell has worked to ensure the tribes do not accept the settlement money (which was valued at up to $100 million in 1998) because that would extinguish their claims to their former territory.[3]

In 1998, BLM issued trespass notices to the Danns and Raymond Yowell, chief of the Western Shoshone Nation, ordering their removal of hundreds of cows and horses from public lands in Eureka County, Nevada.[3] Carrie and Mary Dann filed a request for urgent action with the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. They had been active in the movement to recover millions of acres of land in Nevada and bordering states that originally belonged to the Western Shoshone tribe.

The Dann sisters persuaded the UN of their case, which subsequently ordered the US government to halt all actions against the Western Shoshone people, a mandate which was mostly ignored.[5]

Mary Dann

Mary Dann (January 2, 1923 – April 22, 2005) (Western Shoshone) was a Native American activist. She died from an accident on her ranch in Crescent Valley, central Nevada, on April 22, 2005.[6][7]

Carrie Dann

Carrie Dann (1932 – January 1, 2021) was a Western Shoshone spiritual elder and activist for land and tribal rights.[8]

On April 1, 2007, Carrie Dann was arrested with 38 other activists for trespassing at the Nevada Test Site at a Nevada Desert Experience event protesting governmental programs at the site.[9][10] She has continued with activities to try to end nuclear testing and programs at the site.

In November 2008 Dann, with members of the Western Shoshone Defense Project and four other tribal and public interest groups, sued in federal court against the US and Canadian Barrick Gold, seeking an injunction to stop the “largest open pit cyanide heap leach gold mines in the United States – the Cortez Hills Expansion Project on Mt. Tenabo,” Nevada. The Western Shoshone consider this to be sacred land. In addition to spiritual concerns, tribal and other groups are concerned about the proposed project’s environmental impact on water, air and ground quality.[1]

Representation in documentary films

  • Newe Segobia is Not for Sale (1993) was produced by Jesse Drew. The film depicts confrontations between Federal Bureau of Land Management officers determined to impound the Dann sisters’ livestock, and the Danns’ demonstration of US treaty violations.
  • American Outrage (2008) is a documentary film about the Dann sisters and their decades-long struggle against the U.S. Government for the right to graze their horses on tribal grazing land.[11] The film follows the Dann sisters and tribal rights advocates as the case was ruled on by the US Supreme Court and the United Nations.[12]


  1. Jump up to:a b Wolf, Lisa J. (November 24, 2008). “Shoshone Indians Sue to Stop Barrick’s Nevada Gold Mine”Environment News Service. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  2. ^ American Outrage, Bullfrog Films website, 2009; accessed 7 November 2016
  3. Jump up to:a b c Vogel, Ed (April 5, 1998). “Shoshones stake their claim”Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  4. ^ “Mary † and Carrie Dann of the Western Shoshone Nation (USA)” Archived 2007-10-12 at the Wayback Machine, The Right Livelihood Award, accessed 13 December 2011
  5. Jump up to:a b c d LeDuff, Charlie (October 31, 2002). “Range War in Nevada Pits U.S. Against 2 Shoshone Sisters”The New York Times. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  6. ^ “Remembering Mary Dann – W. Shoshone Warrior”. American Indian Movement of Colorado. April 25, 2005. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  7. ^ “Mary Dann, Activist for Shoshone Tribe, Dies”The New York Times. Associated Press. April 23, 2005. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  8. ^ “Indigenous land activist Carrie Dann has died”. This is Reno. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  9. ^ “Martin Sheen protests Nevada test site”Eugene Register-Guard. Associated Press. April 2, 2007. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  10. ^ Rizvi, Haider (April 11, 2006). “Native Americans Want ‘Bunker Buster’ Test Stopped”Common Dreams. Archived from the original on June 12, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  11. ^ “American Outrage (NY Premiere)” (PDF)Human Rights Watch: International Film Festival. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
  12. ^ “American Outrage (2008)”IMDb. I. Retrieved 17 February 2015.

External links

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An Interview with Semu Huaute (Medecine Man of the Chumash Tribe)

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History of the Indian Center in Los Angeles

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The Bear Tribe

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The Articles of Incorporation of the Native Orthodox Church

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Eagle vs. Turkey

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Map of California

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Native American Heritage Month

On August 3, 1990, President of the United States George H. W. Bush declared the month of November as National American Indian Heritage Month, thereafter commonly referred to as Native American Heritage Month. The bill read in part that “the President has authorized and requested to call upon Federal, State and local Governments, groups and organizations and the people of the United States to observe such month with appropriate programs, ceremonies and activities”. This landmark bill honoring America’s tribal people represented a major step in the establishment of this celebration which began in 1976 when a Cherokee/Osage Indian named Jerry C. Elliott-High Eagle authored Native American Awareness Week legislation the first historical week of recognition in the nation for native peoples. This led to 1986 with then President Ronald Reagan proclaiming November 23-30, 1986, as “American Indian Week”.[1]This commemorative month aims to provide a platform for Native people in the United States of America to share their culture, traditions, music, crafts, dance, and ways and concepts of life. This gives Native people the opportunity to express to their community, both city, county and state officials their concerns and solutions for building bridges of understanding and friendship in their local area. Federal Agencies are encouraged to provide educational programs for their employees regarding Native American history, rights, culture and contemporary issues, to better assist them in their jobs and for overall awareness.

Current designation

Previous designations


In 1976, a Cherokee Indian named J.C. Elliott-High Eagle authored the historic first week of awareness and recognition for native American Indian and Alaska natives. The week of ceremonies and activities were held in October. In 2012,[2] 2013,[3][4] 2014,[5] 2015[6] and 2016[7] President Barack Obama made a Presidential proclamation on the 31st of October of each year that each respective November would be National Native American Heritage Month.

In 2017[8][9][10] and 2018[11] and 2019[12] President Donald Trump made a Presidential proclamation on the 31st of October of each year that each respective November would be National Native American Heritage Month.


A Cherokee American Indian, J.C. Elliott-High Eagle, authored Pub.L. 94–103, 89 Stat. 486 (S.J. Res. 209) for American Indian Awareness Week, October 10–16, 1976, signed by President Gerald R. Ford. This became the first official week of national recognition for the American Indian (Proclamation 4468) since the founding of the nation.[13]


On October 31, 2019, President Donald Trump also proclaimed November 2019 as National American History and Founders Month[14] to celebrate the first European founders and colonizers of America. In a similar fashion to when, on October 13, 2019, President Donald Trump issued a formal proclamation recognizing Columbus Day and not Indigenous People’s Day,[15] some journalists suggested National American History and Founders Month is an attempt to subvert attention from National Native American Heritage Month[16] and stifle the indigenous voice[17] by announcing a celebration that can be viewed as opposing and contradictory to what National Native American Heritage Month is supposed to highlight and honor.[18][19]

See also


  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (October 31, 2012). “Presidential Proclamation — National Native American Heritage Month, 2012”whitehouse.govWashington, D.C. Retrieved November 5, 2019 – via National Archives.
  3. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (October 31, 2013). “President Barack Obama Proclaims November 2013 as National Native American Heritage Month”whitehouse.govWashington, D.C. Retrieved November 6, 2017 – via National Archives.
  4. ^ “National Native American Heritage Month, 2013”Federal RegisterWashington, D.C.National Archives and Records Administration. October 31, 2013. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017. Alt URL
  5. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (October 31, 2014). “Presidential Proclamation — National Native American Heritage Month, 2014”whitehouse.govWashington, D.C. Retrieved November 5, 2019 – via National Archives.
  6. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (October 31, 2015). “Presidential Proclamation — National Native American Heritage Month, 2015”whitehouse.govWashington, D.C. Retrieved November 5, 2019 – via National Archives.
  7. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (October 31, 2016). “Presidential Proclamation — National Native American Heritage Month, 2016”whitehouse.govWashington, D.C. Retrieved November 5, 2019 – via National Archives.
  8. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (October 31, 2017). “President Donald J. Trump Proclaims November 2017 as National Native American Heritage Month”whitehouse.govWashington, D.C. Retrieved November 6, 2017 – via National Archives.
  9. ^ Scott, Eugene (November 3, 2017). “Trump’s ‘Pocahontas’ jab at Elizabeth Warren draws the ire of Native Americans”The Washington PostWashington, D.C.Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
  10. ^ “National Native American Heritage Month, 2017”Federal RegisterWashington, D.C.National Archives and Records Administration. October 31, 2017. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017. Alt URL
  11. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (October 31, 2018). “Presidential Proclamation on National Native American Heritage Month, 2018”whitehouse.govWashington, D.C. Retrieved November 5, 2019 – via National Archives.
  12. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (October 31, 2019). “Presidential Proclamation on National Native American Heritage Month, 2019”whitehouse.govWashington, D.C. Retrieved November 6, 2019 – via National Archives.
  13. ^ “Proclamation 4468—Native American Awareness Week, 1976”University of California, Santa BarbaraSanta Barbara, CaliforniaUniversity of California. October 8, 1976. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
  14. ^ Office of the Press Secretary (October 31, 2019). “Presidential Proclamation on National American History and Founders Month, 2019”whitehouse.govWashington, D.C. Retrieved November 5, 2019 – via National Archives.
  15. ^ Harper, Jennifer (October 13, 2019). “Trump marks Columbus Day, praises explorer’s drive for discovery as ‘core of the American spiritwashingtontimes.comThe Washington Times. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
  16. ^ Armus, Teo (November 5, 2019). “November is Native American Heritage Month. Critics say Trump is subverting it with a new celebration of the Founding Fathers”Washington Post. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
  17. ^ The Associated Press (November 5, 2019). “Trump Honors Native Americans, US Founders in Same Month”The New York TimesNew York, New York. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
  18. ^ Connor, Jay (November 5, 2019). “Trump Gives National American Indian Heritage Month an All Lives Matter Makeover That Nobody Is Here For”theroot.comThe Root. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
  19. ^ Lennard, Natasha (November 6, 2019). “Trump Says Native Americans’ Heritage Month Is Also for the White Men Who Stole Their Land”theintercept.comThe Intercept. Retrieved November 6, 2019.

External links

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